GMAT解毒十日談 - by 黃卓明

二戰和多戰考友探討經驗教訓, 專業分析考生備考誤區, 機經, 臨考叮嚀

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GMAT解毒十日談 - by 黃卓明

文章Behemoth » 2011-05-24 18:29

余對方舟子先生之義舉一向敬仰之,惜乎科學素養低下,無法助其一臂之力,唯有在自己熟悉的GMAT領域舉起義旗,意在蕩滌江湖上所有妖道,不論是否出自某機構,所謂之“偏好”、規律,希望能高揚科學判斷,理性分析,辯證思維之大旗,提高廣大考生的邏輯思辨能力。


今日開始第一講:情態動詞不能改?

先來看一道題:

156. (29754-!-item-!-188;#058&004524)
Deborah Aguiar-Velez, founder of Sistemas Corporation, has written a computer textbook in Spanish for people who speak Spanish and so then do not have to rely on translations from
English.
A. for people who speak Spanish and so then
B. for people who speak Spanish, and then they
C. for people speaking Spanish who
D. so that people who speak Spanish
E. so that people can speak Spanish and then
下面是chasedream論壇上網友整理的題目注釋,首先必須肯定這些網友為廣大考友做的辛勤勞動,但是很可惜,這位網友顯然帶上了被某機構毒害的痕跡,有顏色的字是其注釋部分

選項分析:
A、錯在so then後面句子的主語與DAV一樣然而句子想要說的是people who speak Spanish
B、這裡的and then沒有錯,只是表達因果上和句子表達上不如so that好
C、沒有so that好,而且原句修飾people的從句改成了修飾Spanish
D、正確
E、在這裡注意一下情態動詞,一般情況下原句沒有情態動詞的不要亂加,有了情態動詞的正確答案的選項中也一定要出現同類情態動詞


請注意E選項的解讀。其實,E的錯法非常簡單,就是邏輯意思不對,因為根據句意,某人寫了本西語書,所以,講西語的人就可以看了,而不需要依賴翻譯。而E的意思是,某人寫了本書,導致一堆人可以講西語和看讀某書了。這顯然不符合邏輯。但是很遺憾的是,本題評注者被一些所謂的規律蒙住了眼睛,沒有去注意這一具有推廣性,真正能提高考生分析句意能力的考點,卻去留意所謂的“情態動詞”考點。
其實,大家只要想一想就可以明白,正確答案是否需要情態動詞,完全取決於邏輯句意是否需要傳達情態的意思。命題者只需要把E選項調換到A選項,那麼馬上就可以出現所謂的原句有情態,正確的選項並無情態動詞的矛盾。看到了把,這個”規律“多麼脆弱!


再看一道題目,徹底打破那些妖道所謂的”規律“
Possible long-term consequences of the “greenhouse effect,” the gradual warming of the Earth’s climate, may include melting the polar ice caps and a rising sea level.
A. may include melting the polar ice caps and a rising sea level
B. may include the melting of polar ice caps and the rising sea level
C. may include polar ice caps that are melting and sea levels that are rising
D. include melting the polar ice caps and sea levels that are rising
E. include melting of the polar ice caps and a rise in sea level

此題“原句”(請允許我先借用一下這個錯誤的提法)是有情態動詞may的。但是,恰恰是這個may,導致了和第一個單詞possible在意義上的重複。此題另一個考點是平行結構,最後的正確答案是E,並無情態動詞。
諸君須記,所以的簡單依靠回歸分析總結的規律,都是能被命題者反向設計的;所有不借助理性分析得到的所謂”偏好“,都會存在巨大的使用風險。




“GMAT解毒十日談”之二:主動優先被動?
今天是第二講,選項比較中,主動語態真的優先被動語態嗎?

余對方舟子先生之義舉一向敬仰之,惜乎科學素養低下,無法助其一臂之力,唯有在自己熟悉的GMAT領域舉起義旗,意在蕩滌江湖上所有妖道,不論是否出自某機構,所謂之“偏好”、規律,希望能高揚科學判斷,理性分析,辯證思維之大旗,提高廣大考生的邏輯思辨能力。


應該說,這個提法不是完全地錯誤,只是在執行過程中,很容易被學生錯誤操作成,一見到被動語態的選項就殺。因為學生並不懂得執行這個規律的前提。

先看一道符合該規律的題目:

PREP 232題
Although the restaurant company has recently added many new restaurants across the country and its sales have increased dramatically, its sales at restaurants open for more than a year have declined.
A. the restaurant company has recently added many new restaurants across the country and its sales have increased dramatically, its
B. the restaurant company has recently added many new restaurants across the country and its sales increased dramatically, its
C. many new restaurants have recently been opened across the country and its sales increased dramatically, the restaurant company's
D. having recently added many new restaurants across the country and with its sales increasing dramatically, the restaurant company's
E. recently adding many new restaurants across the country and having its sales increase dramatically, the restaurant company's

本題的正確選項是A,注意C是一個被動語態的選項。但是排除C的原因,並非因為它寫成了被動語態,而是C中的這個it,由於主語被改成了restaurants,導致無法指代。這才是真正的原因。也就是說,寫成被動語態本身並不是什麼致命的錯誤,真正導致出錯的,實際上很可能是由於句子寫成了被動語態帶來的句子主語的變化,導致其和前後部分產生了不一致關係。明白這個真正的內因,才能深刻理解英語句子調換了語序,對修飾關係帶來的影響。

再看兩道和所謂“規律”矛盾的題目。
Imported into Massachusetts form Europe in 1869, the gypsy moth was used by a French scientist in an attempt at developing a strong strain of silk-producing insects, crossing gypsy moths with adult silkworms.
1. Imported into Massachusetts from Europe in 1869, the gypsy moth was used by a French scientist in an attempt at developing a strong strain of silk-producing insects, crossing gypsy moths with adult silkworms.
2. Imported into Massachusetts form Europe in 1869, a French scientist was attempting to develop a strong strain of silk-producing insects by crossing gypsy moths with adult silkworms.
3. To cross gypsy moths with adult silkworms, in attempting the development of a strong strain of silk-producing insects, a French scientist in 1869 imported the gypsy moth into Massachusetts from Europe.
4. The gypsy moth was imported into Massachusetts from Europe in 1869 by a French scientist attempting to develop a strong strain of silk-producing insects by crossing gypsy moths with adult silkworms.
5. In an attempt at the development of a strong strain of silk-producing insects, a French scientist, importing the gypsy moth from Europe into Massachusetts in 1869 in order to cross gypsy moths and adult silkworms.

此題答案是D
為何此題要採用被動語態?因為作者在組織語序的過程中發現,只有採取被動語態,才能在一句話裡面承載所有資訊,而不至於出現修飾問題。另外,採取了主動語態的B選項恰恰是錯誤選項,因為科學家被置於句首,導致無法被主句之前的“Imported。。。。”修飾。


Regardless of their form or function, all aerodynamically enhanced, curved objects made for throwing have been called boomerangs by non-Australians even since 1788, when Europeans saw Dharug-speaking men tossing “bumariny” in the area later known as Sydney.
1. Regardless of their form or function, all aerodynamically enhanced, curved objects made for throwing have been called boomerangs by non-Australians ever since 1788,
2. Regardless of their form or function, any aerodynamically enhanced, curved object made for throwing has been called a boomerang by non-Australians ever since 1788,
3. Ever since 1788, non-Australians have called all aerodynamically enhanced, curved objects made for throwing boomerangs, regardless of their form or function, from
4. Ever since 1788, any aerodynamically enhanced, curved object made for throwing has been called a boomerang by non-Australians, regardless of its form or function, from
5. Non-Australians have called all aerodynamically enhanced, curved objects made for throwing boomerangs ever since 1788, regardless of their form or function, from

此題答案為A,也是被動語態。為何?本題解題有很多切入點,一個巧妙的切入點就是利用“regardless of their form or function”.這一修飾部分,無論擺前擺後,都是用於修飾主句主語的,這就已經註定了,主句的主語只能是objects,而不能是人,有種姻緣早被註定的感覺。使用主動語態的選項反而是錯的。


再看一題
3 The first commercially successful drama to depict Black family life sympathetically and the first play by a Black woman to be produced on Broadway, it was Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun that won the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award in 1959, and was later made into both a film and a musical.

1. it was Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun that won the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award in 1959, and was later made
2. in 1959 A Raisin in the Sun, by Lorraine Hansberry, won the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award and was later made
3. Lorraine Hansberry won the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award for A Raisin in the Sun in 1959, and it was later made
4. Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun won the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award in 1959 and was later made
5. A Raisin in the Sun, by Lorraine Hansberry, won the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award in 1959, and later made it

本題答案是D,使用了主動語態的E選項反而是錯的。因為made的真正發出者不是E中顯示的那本書。也就是說,邏輯意思比所謂的主動被動更重要。

講到這,諸君可能已經若有所悟。主動和被動,只是形式的區別,真正決定句子對錯的,更多是邏輯意思。主動也好,被動也好,只是一個表像,要做出正確的判斷,一定要明白寫成主動或者被動形式,帶來了句子什麼樣的修飾關係或者邏輯意思的變化,才是得其神韻。


留一題供諸君思考,這題判斷對錯的依據是什麼?是主動被動嗎?

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.
1. year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
2. year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
3. year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
4. year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
5. year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output



GMAT解毒十日談系列之三:那些憂傷的詞們,你們有多少無法言狀的哀愁——having與being


它們被某機構鼓吹為必錯,總是最先被棄於選擇之外,它們總是被OG用awkward/wordy等一個簡單的描述,輕輕地貼上了標籤,卻與誰人訴?
然而,總有那麼一些頑強的綠芽,穿透冰雪覆蓋的土原,要和那眾生,擺擺理,說說那自己存在的價值。

一 為什麼being、having會出錯?
與前兩講分析的原理一樣,簡單地把having、being視為必錯選項,實質上是犯了形而上的思維謬誤,簡單地對有限的歷史樣本進行回歸,而忽略了背後的邏輯分析,因而極其容易被命題老頭進行反向設計。

任何表像必有其內在原因,主要來說,把having/being置於死地的主要是這麼幾種原因:

(1)你丫真的多餘了:being + 形容詞或者名詞或過去分詞,構成一個句子的狀語的時候,如
Being very tired, Sam go to the toilet.

這個being就是可以省略的,根據英語語法,也必須省略。
此題的B選項也類似該情況。

She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to her native Germany, photographer Lotte Jacobi nevertheless earned a small group of discerning admirers, and her photographs were eventually exhibited in prestigious galleries across the United States.
A. She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to
B. Being less successful after she had emigrated to New York as compared to
C. Less successful after she emigrated to New York than she had been in
D. Although she was less successful after emigrating to New York when compared to
E. She had been less successful after emigrating to New York than in

這個being就是可以拿掉的,當然,必須反復指出,該選項的毛病必不限於being一處。


此題的B選項也是同一情況
The thirteen original British colonies in North America, some formed as commercial ventures,others as religious havens, each had a written charter that set forth its form of government and the rights of the colonists.
A. some formed as commercial ventures, others as religious havens, each had a written charter
B. some being formed as a commercial venture, others as religious havens, all of which had written charters
C. some that formed as commercial ventures, others as religious havens, all had written charters
D. with some being formed as a commercial venture, others as religious havens, all had a written charter
E. with some formed as commercial ventures, while others as religious havens, each had a written charter


(2)受累於獨立主格結構之類的吃力不討好的寫法,由be被迫變成分詞being,或者被強迫名詞化,受牽連而錯。

如上題的D選項
D. with some being formed as a commercial venture, others as religious havens, all had a written charter

還有此題的A選項
For the last five years the Dutch economy has grown faster than Britain, France, or Germany,
with the unemployment rate having remained well below that of the other three countries.
A. Britain, France, or Germany, with the unemployment rate having remained
B. have those of Britain, France, or Germany, and the unemployment rate remaining
C. have Britain, France, and Germany, and the unemployment rate has remained
D. the economy of Britain, France, and Germany, with the unemployment rate that has
remained
E. the economies of Britain, France, and Germany, and the unemployment rate has remained

再有
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past
上面就是被迫名詞化,承擔了自己無法承擔的功能,你說你用committment多好啊


(3)由於其出現,導致了句子謂語缺失,如此題的E選項

Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the first woman to draw a soldier's pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve.
A. 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become
B. 22, was injured three times, while being discharged in 1783 because she had become
C. 22 and was injured three times, and discharged in 1783, being
D. 22, injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she was
E. 22, having been injured three times and discharged in 1783, being

以下這題2種情況都出現了

223. (33083-!-item-!-188;#058&007226) (T-4-Q16)
Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by overcutting trees and
farming too intensively, and though some protective measures, like the establishment of
national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great increases in
population and in the intensity of industrialization are causing a worldwide ecological crisis.
A. though some protective measures, like the establishment of national forests and wildlife
sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great increases in population
B. though some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests and
wildlife sanctuaries, were taken decades ago, great increases in population
C. though some protective measures, such as establishing national forests and wildlife sanctuaries having been taken decades ago, great population increases 無謂語
D. with some protective measures, like establishing national forests and wildlife sanctuaries that were taken decades ago, great increases in population
E. with some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great population increases 被with所累


(4)雖然彆扭,都是自身並無硬傷,是由於與句子其它部分產生不一致關係而錯。如

214. (31773-!-item-!-188;#058&006602) (GWD-8-Q1:GWD-13-13)
Being that she was secretary of labor, Frances Perkins' considerable influence with Franklin D.Roosevelt was used preventing him from restraining strikes by longshoremen and automobile workers.
A. Being that she was secretary of labor, Frances Perkins' considerable influence with Franklin D. Roosevelt was used preventing
B. As secretary of labor, Frances Perkins' considerable influence with Franklin D. Roosevelt was used to prevent
C. Being secretary of labor, Frances Perkins' considerable influence with Franklin D. Roosevelt was used preventing
D. As secretary of labor, Frances Perkins used her considerable influence with Franklin D. Roosevelt to prevent
E. Secretary of labor, Frances Perkins' considerable influence was used with Franklin D.Roosevelt preventing

某論壇直接用being 殺掉A,C是不對的。這裡A,C雖然彆扭,但是最關鍵的問題,是這兩句的主語是influence,與主句前面的修飾部分不對應。如果廣大考生都按某機構所言,猛殺being,就會錯過這道題目的真正訓練意義,這也是大仙我最反對的。


(5)本來沒有進行感覺,用了being之後被強行加上了。如
For protection from the summer sun, the Mojave lived in open-sided, flat-topped dwellings known as shades, each a roof of poles and arrowweed supported by posts set in a rectangle.
1. each a roof of poles and arrowweed
2. each a roof of poles and arrowweed that are being 這動作就定在那兒了,不用做吧。
3. with each being a roof of poles and arrowweed
4. with roofs of poles and arrowweed to be
5. with roofs of poles and arrowweed that are



(6)該選項其它地方大錯,拖累它們了。這種情況是最冤的。但是某機構會很輕鬆地利用它們把這題解釋過去,實際上對廣大同學產生了誤導。如

Charles Lindbergh, for his attempt at a solo transatlantic flight, was very reluctant to have any extra weight on his plane, he therefore refused to carry even a pound of mail, despite being offered $1,000 to do so.
1. Charles Lindbergh, for his attempt at a solo transatlantic flight, was very reluctant to have any extra weight on his plane, he therefore
2. When Charles Lindbergh was attempting his solo transatlantic flight, being very reluctant to have any extra weight on his plane, he
3. Since he was very reluctant to carry any extra weight on his plane when he was attempting his solo transatlantic flight, so Charles Lindbergh
4. Being very reluctant to carry any extra weight on his plane when he attempted his solo transatlantic flight was the reason that Charles Lindbergh
5. Very reluctant to have any extra weight on his plane when he attempted his solo transatlantic flight, Charles Lindbergh

此題的D選項一直被簡單解釋為being不好,實際上此題being做主語用並無大問題,真正出問題的是本句的宏觀修飾結構,留意劃線外面的 黑體部分,這幾個字限定了本句的主語必須是Charles L。
實際上,上一組題的
each a roof of poles and arrowweed that are being
也有其它硬傷,就是主謂一致。本題的主語是單數呢。這也給我們考生一個啟示,一定不要糾纏於是否用being判斷對錯上面,而應該堅定地尋找更硬的判定原則



二 being、having也會對

255. (29858-!-item-!-188;#058&004408) (GWD-12-Q19)
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

此題選E, Being用得一點問題也沒有,分詞做句子主語。


A mixture of poems and short fiction, Jean Toomer's Cane has been called one of the three best novels ever written by Black Americans—the others being Richard Wright, author of Native Son, and Ralph Ellison, author of Invisible Man
A. Black Americans—the others being Richard Wright, author of Native Son, and Ralph Ellison,author of Invisible Man
B. Black Americans—including Native Son by Richard Wright and Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison
C. a Black American—including Richard Wright, author of Native Son, and Ralph Ellison,author of Invisible Man
D. a Black American—the others being Richard Wright, author of Native Son, and Ralph Ellison, author of Invisible Man
E. a Black American—the others being Richard Wright's Native Son and Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man

此題選E,一個簡練的獨立主格結構



Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the
brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about
how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.
A. Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years
about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are
B. Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its
development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
C. Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from
birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
D. Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about
the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,
E. Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about
the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

此題選A,having正確地傳遞了兩個動作之間的先後關係。



那些憂傷的having,being,但願你們的故事,不要被匆匆掠過。。。。




學習一下各位年輕人的語言:原句你妹!
再用一下我自己的語言:某機構,你知道永遠有多遠嗎?

以下細字點評是網上流傳的某版本全解。除了肯定原作者嘔心瀝血的總結以及強大的共用精神之外,大仙我不由對一些由某機構推出的謬誤流傳之廣而憂心。粗字為大仙注釋。本講重點批判“原句“的提法,不代表大仙認同其它的點評。

Polio, although it is eradicated in the United States, it continues elsewhere and is able to be brought into the country by visitors.
(A) Polio, although it is eradicated in the United States, it continues elsewhere and is able to be
(B) Polio, although eradicated in the United States, it still continues elsewhere and can be
(C) Although still continuing elsewhere, polio has been eradicated in the United States and could be
(D) Although having been eradicated in the United States, polio still continues elsewhere and is capable of being
(E) Although eradicated in the United States, polio continues elsewhere and could be
(A) 句子結構複雜; be able to do表示擁有能力去做的意思, 用在此處不合適; it continues中的it多餘,因為去掉插入語although後,句子變為Polio it continues…,it和Polio重複
(B) it多餘
(C)隨意替換Although的內容, 更改了原句的意思

這裡的要害不是什麼“改變原句“的意思,大仙已經再三強掉,A不代表作者本來想表達的意思,所以也不存在“原句”的提法。判斷意思對不對,唯一的標準是邏輯。這句的要害在於,假如用轉折關係來修飾Polio繼續這個事兒,則把該病被除掉以及可以被帶到世界其它地方變成了並列關係。而實際上那2者按照意思應該是轉折關係。

(D) having been eradicated使用錯誤,應該去掉having been; is capable of being表示擁有某種能力,用在此處不合適
(E) 正確,整個句子簡潔,表達清晰,用could表達一種可能性

The single-family house constructed by the Yana, a Native American people who lived in what is now northern California, was conical in shape, its framework of poles overlaid with slabs of bark, either cedar or pine, and banked with dirt to a height of three to four feet.

(A) banked with dirt to a height of
(B) banked with dirt as high as that of
(C) banked them with dirt to a height of
(D) was banked with dirt as high as
(E) was banked with dirt as high as that of

(A) 正確,banked with與overlaid with並列,height of +數量詞,表高度,例如a height of 6000 metres。
(B) that沒有指代物件。
(C) 複數them沒有指代物件,前面是單數名詞framework。
(D) and was banked...在語法上與主句was conical…並列,改變原句意思。
(E) and was banked...在語法上與主句was conical…並列,改變原句意思;that沒有指代物件。

妖霧又重來!你妹的“原句”!。誰和誰並列,不是看A選項規定誰和誰,而是看誰和誰有資格並列。此處如果使用D或者E的話,則把圓錐形和banked with …..並列,顯然不如overlaid with 與banked with 並列合理,因為這2者都是提到了材料的問題。


Unlike many United States cities, where a river is no longer the focal point of urban life, the river in San Antonio winds through the middle of the business district, and the River Walk, or Paseo del Rio,is the city's most popular attraction.

(A) Unlike many United States cities, where a river is no longer the focal point of urban life, the river in San Antonio
(B) Unlike the river in many cities in the United States, which is no longer the focal point of urban life, in San Antonio the river
(C) Today the river in many cities in the United States is no longer the focal point of urban life,unlike San Antonio, where it
(D) In few United States cities today, a river is the focal point of urban life, but the river in San Antonio
(E) No longer do many cities in the United States have a river as the focal point of urban life, but in San Antonio the river

(A) unlike連接比較物件不平行,cities和river。
(B) which指代United States錯誤,應該指代river。
(C) unlike一般不置於句中,容易產生對比歧義;it指代錯誤,在邏輯上不能指代前面的river。
(D) 去掉no longer,把全部否定變成部分否定,改變了原句意思。

此選項真正的要害不在部分還是全部否定,因為我們也不知道作者是想寫成部分還是全部否定,而在於一處非常簡單劃線內外呼應關係,劃線外面的一個完整句子,是以the river開頭的,這條河也應該在那個市的裡面,所以San Antonio必須出現在the river的前面,同時修飾兩條河。另外today的修飾物件也有問題,如果放於句首會清楚一些。

(E) 正確,but連接並列的分句,不需要形式上完全對等。

Like the great navigators who first sailed around the Earth, to gather information about its size and curvature of its surface, new observations have been made by astronomers that show with startling directness the large-scale geometry of the universe.

(A) Like the great navigators who first sailed around the Earth, to gather information about its size and curvature of its surface, new observations have been made by astronomers
(B) Like the great navigators who first sailed around the Earth for gathering information about its size and also the curvature of its surface, new observations have been made by astronomers
(C) Similar to the great navigators who first sailed around the Earth, where they gathered information about its size and the curvature of its surface, astronomers have made new observations
(D) Like the great navigators who first sailed around the Earth gathering information about its size and the curvature of its surface, astronomers have made new observations
(E) Just as with the great navigators who first sailed around the Earth, gathering information about its size and curvature of the surface, astronomers have made new observations

(A) like連接比較物件不對等,navigators與observations。
(B) like連接比較物件不對等,navigators與observations;表目的用不定式優於for doing結構。
(C)用where引導定語從句改變了原句意思,原句並沒有說明gather information是在Earth;similar to 放在句首永遠錯,應該用Like替換

我老人家都啞然失笑了,sailor不在地球上航行,難道在太空航行啊?這TM還用你所謂的“原句”來說?此選項的關鍵問題還是邏輯關係,即兩個動作是伴隨進行,隨著航行的進行,收集資訊的工作也在同步進行中。至於某機構熱愛的“永遠”二字,更經不起推敲,以上like與similar to的區別是意思上的區別,並無永遠錯永遠對之不能翻身之說。

(D) 正確,navigators與astronomers對比。
(E) just as with搭配錯誤。


35. (26308-!-item-!-188;#058&003128)

Unlike the steam locomotive, which required an hour or two of firing up before it was possible to move under its own power, nearly full power could be summoned almost instantly from the cold engine of a diesel locomotive.

(A) it was possible to move under its own power, nearly full power could be summoned almost instantly from the cold engine of a diesel locomotive
(B) it was possible to move under its own power, the diesel locomotive's engine, when cold, could produce nearly full power almost instantly
(C) it could move under its own power, the diesel locomotive could summon nearly full power from a cold engine almost instantly
(D) moving under its own power, the cold engine of the diesel locomotive could produce nearly full power almost instantly
(E) moving under its own power, almost instantly a diesel locomotive could summon nearly full power from a cold engine

(A) 形式主語it與its指代物件不一致;unlike連接比較物件不對等,locomotive與power。
(B) 形式主語it與its指代物件不一致;unlike連接比較物件不對等,locomotive與engine。
(C) 正確,steam locomotive與diesel locomotive對比,it指代前者。
(D) unlike連接比較物件不對等,locomotive與engine。
(E) before moving…沒有表達出原句所要表達的“能夠,可能”的意思;almost instantly位置改變,引起修飾歧義。

這個可能不可能不是“原句”規定的,而是句內的對應關係規定的。因為後半句使用了could,而本句又是一個比較關係,所以前半截也要使用could與其對應。請記住,最靠譜的線索一定來自句內的呼應關係!
Eric Chang
MBA Class of 2008
MIT Sloan School of Management
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文章: 2948
註冊時間: 2004-09-10 18:19
來自: Boston

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